Francis of Assisi: A New Biography - Augustine Thompson - Google книги
It received concessions from the Mameluke Sultan in with regard to certain Holy Places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem , and so far as concerns the Catholic Church jurisdictional privileges from Pope Clement VI in By this time, the growing Order of friars was divided into provinces and groups were sent to France, Germany, Hungary, and Spain and to the East. Upon receiving a report of the martyrdom of five brothers in Morocco , Francis returned to Italy via Venice. Another reason for Francis' return to Italy was that the Franciscan Order had grown at an unprecedented rate compared to previous religious orders, but its organizational sophistication had not kept up with this growth and had little more to govern it than Francis' example and simple rule.
To address this problem, Francis prepared a new and more detailed Rule, the "First Rule" or "Rule Without a Papal Bull " Regula prima , Regula non bullata , which again asserted devotion to poverty and the apostolic life. However, it also introduced greater institutional structure, though this was never officially endorsed by the pope. On September 29, , Francis handed over the governance of the Order to Brother Peter Catani at the Porziuncola, but Brother Peter died only five months later, on March 10, , and was buried there.
When numerous miracles were attributed to the deceased brother, people started to flock to the Porziuncola, disturbing the daily life of the Franciscans. Francis then prayed, asking Peter to stop the miracles and to obey in death as he had obeyed during his life. The reports of miracles ceased. As the official Rule of the Order, it called on the friars "to observe the Holy Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, living in obedience without anything of our own and in chastity".
In addition, it set regulations for discipline, preaching, and entry into the Order. Once the Rule was endorsed by the Pope, Francis withdrew increasingly from external affairs. While he was praying on the mountain of Verna, during a forty-day fast in preparation for Michaelmas September 29 , Francis is said to have had a vision on or about September 14, , the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross , as a result of which he received the stigmata. Brother Leo, who had been with Francis at the time, left a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.
This angel gave him the gift of the five wounds of Christ. In the end, he was brought back to a hut next to the Porziuncola.
Here, in the place where the Franciscan movement began, and feeling that the end of his life was approaching, he spent his last days dictating his spiritual testament. Francis was buried on May 25, , under the Lower Basilica, but his tomb was soon hidden on orders of Brother Elias to protect it from Saracen invaders. His exact burial place remained unknown until it was re-discovered in Pasquale Belli then constructed for the remains a crypt in neo-classical style in the Lower Basilica. It was refashioned between and into its present form by Ugo Tarchi, stripping the wall of its marble decorations.
In , the remains of Saint Francis were examined and confirmed by a commission of scholars appointed by Pope Paul VI , and put into a glass urn in the ancient stone tomb. It has been argued that no one else in history was as dedicated as Francis to imitate the life, and carry out the work of Christ, in Christ's own way. This is important in understanding Francis' character and his affinity for the Eucharist and respect for the priests who carried out the sacrament. He and his followers celebrated and even venerated poverty. Poverty was so central to his character that in his last written work, the Testament, he said that absolute personal and corporate poverty was the essential lifestyle for the members of his Order.
He believed that nature itself was the mirror of God. He called all creatures his "brothers" and "sisters", and even preached to the birds   and supposedly persuaded a wolf to stop attacking some locals if they agreed to feed the wolf. His deep sense of brotherhood under God embraced others, and he declared that "he considered himself no friend of Christ if he did not cherish those for whom Christ died".
Francis' visit to Egypt and attempted rapprochement with the Muslim world had far-reaching consequences, long past his own death, since after the fall of the Crusader Kingdom , it would be the Franciscans, of all Catholics, who would be allowed to stay on in the Holy Land and be recognized as " Custodians of the Holy Land " on behalf of the Catholic Church.
Francis of Assisi
He used real animals to create a living scene so that the worshipers could contemplate the birth of the child Jesus in a direct way, making use of the senses, especially sight. Francis preached the Christian doctrine that the world was created good and beautiful by God but suffers a need for redemption because of human sin. He believed that all creatures should praise God a common theme in the Psalms and the people have a duty to protect and enjoy nature as both the stewards of God's creation and as creatures ourselves. An incident illustrating the Saint's humility towards nature is recounted in the "Fioretti" "Little Flowers" , a collection of legends and folklore that sprang up after the Saint's death.
One day, while Francis was traveling with some companions, they happened upon a place in the road where birds filled the trees on either side. Francis told his companions to "wait for me while I go to preach to my sisters the birds. He is often portrayed with a bird, typically in his hand. Another legend from the Fioretti tells that in the city of Gubbio , where Francis lived for some time, was a wolf "terrifying and ferocious, who devoured men as well as animals".
Francis had compassion upon the townsfolk, and so he went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon, fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, though the saint pressed on. When he found the wolf, he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at Francis' feet.
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But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people. In return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks.
In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again. Finally, to show the townspeople that they would not be harmed, Francis blessed the wolf. Three-quarters of a millennium after his death, St Francis remains an important figure and symbol in and out of Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches. The poor man of Assisi gives us striking witness that when we are at peace with God we are better able to devote ourselves to building up that peace with all creation which is inseparable from peace among all peoples.
Saint Pope John Paul II concluded that section of the document with these words, "It is my hope that the inspiration of Saint Francis will help us to keep ever alive a sense of 'fraternity' with all those good and beautiful things which Almighty God has created. Saint Francis' feast day is observed on October 4. A secondary feast in honor of the stigmata received by Saint Francis, celebrated on September 17, was inserted in the General Roman Calendar in later than the Tridentine Calendar and suppressed in , but was restored in In the New Roman Missal of , it was removed again from the General Calendar, as something of a duplication of the main feast on October 4, and left to the calendars of certain localities and of the Franciscan Order.
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At his first audience on 16 March , Pope Francis told journalists that he had chosen the name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi, and had done so because he was especially concerned for the well-being of the poor. He changed history.
Emerging since the 19th century, there are several Protestant adherents and groups, sometimes organised as religious orders, which strive to adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of Saint Francis. The 20th century High Church Movement gave birth to Franciscan inspired orders among revival of religious orders in Protestant Christianity.
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One of the results of the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church during the 19th century was the re-establishment of religious orders, including some of Franciscan inspiration. The principal Anglican communities in the Franciscan tradition are the Community of St. Francis women, founded , the Poor Clares of Reparation P. Clare women, enclosed. In addition, there are associations of Franciscan inspiration not connected with a mainstream Christian tradition and describing themselves as ecumenical or dispersed.
Outside of Christianity, other individuals and movements are influenced by the example and teachings of Saint Francis. These include the popular philosopher Eckhart Tolle , who has made videos on the spirituality of Saint Francis. The interfaith spiritual community of Skanda Vale also takes inspiration from the example of Saint Francis, and models itself as an interfaith Franciscan order. For a complete list, see The Franciscan Experience. Saint Francis is considered the first Italian poet by literary critics. His writings are considered to have great literary and religious value. The Franciscan Order promoted devotion to the life of Saint Francis from his canonization onwards, and commissioned large numbers of works for Franciscan churches, either showing Saint Francis with sacred figures, or episodes from his life.
There are large early fresco cycles in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi , parts of which are shown above. Saint Francis in the Desert Giovanni Bellini , c. Francisco Ribalta , Francis of Assisi with angel music , c. Saint Francis of Assisi in Ecstasy , Caravaggio c. The Ecstasy of St. Francis , Stefano di Giovanni — , Nazario Gerardi as St.
Francis in The Flowers of St.
12.10.29, Thompson, Francis of Assisi: A New Biography
Francis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the friar and patron saint. For other uses, see Francis of Assisi disambiguation. Catholic saint and founder of the Franciscan Order. Saint Francis of Assisi O. The oldest surviving depiction of Saint Francis is a fresco near the entrance of the Benedictine abbey of Subiaco , painted between March and March He is depicted without the stigmata , but the image is a religious image and not a portrait.
In other words, I would have preferred to read more deductions from the sources rather than references to sources that validate some preconceived judgments or interpretations. I also would have liked more and better use of the writings of Francis himself, whether he wrote them alone or with other members of his fraternitas.