Manual A Short History of Rome and Italy

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A new Roman Republic was declared, but it was crushed by French troops that same year.

Roman history timeline

However, revolution remained in the air and the movement for the reunification of Italy succeeded; a new Kingdom of Italy took control of much of the Papal States and was soon pressurizing the pope for control of Rome. By , after French troops left the city, and Italian forces had taken Rome, it was declared capital of the new Italy. As ever, building followed, designed to turn Rome into a capital; the population rose fast, from roughly , in to , in Rome became the focus of a new power struggle in , when Benito Mussolini marched his Blackshirts towards the city and took control of the nation.

He signed the Lateran Pact in , conferring on the Vatican the status of an independent state within Rome, but his regime collapsed during the Second World War. Rome escaped this great conflict without much damage and led Italy throughout the rest of the twentieth century. In , the city had received its first directly elected mayor. Share Flipboard Email.

Ancient Rome

Robert Wilde is a historian with a focus on early medieval Europe who has 15 years of freelance writing experience. Updated February 20, Continue Reading. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our. They also served as commanders in chief of the army. The magistrates, though elected by the people, were drawn largely from the Senate, which was dominated by the patricians, or the descendants of the original senators from the time of Romulus.


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Politics in the early republic was marked by the long struggle between patricians and plebeians the common people , who eventually attained some political power through years of concessions from patricians, including their own political bodies, the tribunes, which could initiate or veto legislation. The Roman forum was more than just home to their Senate. In B. These laws included issues of legal procedure, civil rights and property rights and provided the basis for all future Roman civil law.

By around B. During the early republic, the Roman state grew exponentially in both size and power. Though the Gauls sacked and burned Rome in B.

Rome then fought a series of wars known as the Punic Wars with Carthage, a powerful city-state in northern Africa. In the Third Punic War — B. At the same time, Rome also spread its influence east, defeating King Philip V of Macedonia in the Macedonian Wars and turning his kingdom into another Roman province.

The first Roman literature appeared around B. The gap between rich and poor widened as wealthy landowners drove small farmers from public land, while access to government was increasingly limited to the more privileged classes. Attempts to address these social problems, such as the reform movements of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus in B.

The history of Rome in stages

Gaius Marius, a commoner whose military prowess elevated him to the position of consul for the first of six terms in B. By 91 B. After Sulla retired, one of his former supporters, Pompey, briefly served as consul before waging successful military campaigns against pirates in the Mediterranean and the forces of Mithridates in Asia. During this same period, Marcus Tullius Cicero , elected consul in 63 B. When the victorious Pompey returned to Rome, he formed an uneasy alliance known as the First Triumvirate with the wealthy Marcus Licinius Crassus who suppressed a slave rebellion led by Spartacus in 71 B.

After earning military glory in Spain, Caesar returned to Rome to vie for the consulship in 59 B. From his alliance with Pompey and Crassus, Caesar received the governorship of three wealthy provinces in Gaul beginning in 58 B. With old-style Roman politics in disorder, Pompey stepped in as sole consul in 53 B.

In 49 B. With Octavian leading the western provinces, Antony the east, and Lepidus Africa, tensions developed by 36 B. In 31 B.


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  7. In the wake of this devastating defeat, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. By 29 B. In 27 B. He instituted various social reforms, won numerous military victories and allowed Roman literature, art, architecture and religion to flourish. Augustus ruled for 56 years, supported by his great army and by a growing cult of devotion to the emperor. From Foreign Rule To Capital City to Present Day Following the dark period of the Italian Wars and the subsequent foreign domination of the Italian peninsula, the disparate regions enjoyed a relatively peaceful period under the Hapsburgs to The Napoleonic era to temporarily unified the regions and offered a form of independence, which was revoked in by the Congress of Vienna.

    This was the last straw, serving as a catalyst for the unification movement. In Rome was the final region to be annexed, and was chosen as the capital of the new Italian republic.

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    Short History of Rome

    This brief history of Rome has by definition covered only the highlights of Rome's evolution. With such a diverse cultural, religious and political history, it's no surprise that Rome is one of the most frequently visited cities of the modern world. Her walls encompass centuries of human endeavor, creativity, triumph and defeat. The Vatican is a favorite destination for many of the world's Catholics, and thousands more visit the city each year to view Roman relics, tour historic museums, and savor the sights and sounds of modern day Rome.

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    To learn more about this amazing city, take a look at these titles from Amazon Books: [Pass your cursor over each image for more details]. A Brief History Of Rome This brief history of Rome looks at a city that has risen from nothing to become a world power, then fallen and re-risen through cycles of good fortune and bad over the course of two thousand years.


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